Victor LJL Thijssen (P.I.)


Victor Thijssen obtained a MSc degree in bioengineering at Wageningen university in 1997. In 2002 he received his PhD degree at the University of Maastricht, the Netherlands. His thesis research was focused on gene expression regulation during atrial fibrillation and was performed at the Department of Molecular Cell Biology & Genetics. He continued his postdoctoral training at the department of Cardiology and subsequently joined the Angiogenesis Laboratory in the department of Pathology at the Maastricht University Medical Center. In 2008 he accepted a position as assistant professor within the Department of Radiation Oncology in the Amsterdam UMC | VUmc. As of 2017, he is appointed as associate professor at the same department. He is member of the editorial board of Angiogenesis. In addition, he is Examiner Internships & Literature studies as well as chairman of the programme committee of the MSc Oncology program at the Amsterdam UMC | VUmc. 

Research interest

Our group is interested in deciphering the molecular response mechanisms to clinical schedules of fractionated radiotherapy. The overarching goal is to understand how tumor cells and the tumor micro-environment respond during longer periods of fractionated radiotherapy in order to optimize dose-scheduling of combination therapies.

Over the last decade, we have used different approaches to determine the role of the tumor microenvironment in the response to radiotherapy and to monitor the cellular response(s) of the tumor microenvironment to radiotherapy. This includes studies in cultured cell in vitro, in tumor models in vivo as well as in tumor tissues derived from cancer patients.

Regarding the modulation of the tumor micro-environment, we are particularly interested in the role of galectins, a protein of carbohydrate (sugar) binding proteins that have been linked to blood vessel growth and function as well as to regulation of the immune response. We study how galectins contribute to tumor progression and how targeting galectins can be exploited for cancer therapy.

Research output





Thijssen VL. Galectins in endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis; the basics. Biomolecules 2021; Accepted for publication

Goedegebuure RSA, Harrasser M, de Klerk LK, van Schooten TS, van Grieken NCT, Eken M, Grifhorst MS, Pocorni N, Jordanova ES, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Pouw RE, Verheul HMW, van der Vliet JJ, van Laarhoven HWM, Thijssen VLJL, Bass AJ, de Gruijl TD, Derks S. Pre-treatment tumor-infiltrating T cells influence response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Oncoimmunology. 2021, 10(1):1954807.

Goedegebuure RSA, Kleibeuker EA, Buffa FM, Castricum KCM, Haider S, Schulkens IA, ten Kroode L, van den Berg J, Jacobs MAJM, van Berkel AM, van Grieken NCT, Derks S, Slotman BJ, Verheul HMW, Harris AL,  Thijssen VLJL. STING-independent induction of a type I interferon response during fractionated irradiation. J Exp Clin Can Res. 2021, 40(1):161.

de Klerk LK, Goedegebuure RSA, van Grieken NCT, van Sandick JW, A. Cats, Stiekema J, van der Kaaij RT, Farina Sarasqueta A, van Engeland M, Jacobs MAJM, van Wanrooij RLJ, van der Peet DL, Thorner AR, Verheul HMW, Thijssen VLJL, Bass AJ, Derks S. Molecular profiles and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancers to develop personalized treatment strategies. Mol Oncol. 2021, 15(4):901-914.

Dickhout A, Tullemans BME, Heemskerk JWM, Thijssen VLJL, Kuijpers MJE, Koenen RR. Galectin-1 and platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) induce complementary platelet responses. PLOSONE. 2021, 16(1):e0244736.

Van den Berg J, Castricum KCM, Meel MH, Goedegebuure RSA, Lagerwaard FJ, Slotman BJ, Hulleman E,Thijssen VLJL. Development of transient radioresistance during fractionated irradiation in vitro. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2020, 142:85-91.

Goedegebuure RSA, Vonk C, Kooij LP, Derks S, Thijssen VLJL. Combining radiotherapy with interferons; back to the future. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2020, 108(1):56-69.

Huijbers EJM, van der Werf I, Faber L, Sialino LD, van der Laan P, Holland HAH, Cimpean AM, Thijssen VLJL, van Beijnum JR, Griffioen AW. Targeting tumor vascular CD99 inhibits tumor growth. Frontiers in Immunology. 2019, 10:651.

Muller J, Duray E, Lejeune M, Dubois S, Plougonven E, Léonard A, Storti P, Giuliani N, Cohen-Solal M, Hempel U, Thijssen VL, Beguin Y, Heusschen R, Caers J. Loss of stromal galectin-1 enhances multiple myeloma development: emphasis on a role in osteoclasts. Cancers. 2019, 23;11(2).

Goedegebuure RSA, De Klerk LK, Bass AJ, Derks S,  Thijssen VL. Combining radiotherapy with anti-angiogenic therapy and immunotherapy; a therapeutic triad for cancer? Front Immunol. 2019, 9:3107.

Chakraborty A, Kamermans A, van het Hof B, Castricum K, Aanhane E, van Horssen J, Thijssen VL, Scheltens P, Teunissen CE, Fontijn RD, van der Flier WM, de Vries HE. Angiopoietin like-4 as a novel vascular 1 mediator in capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Brain. 2018, 141(12):3377-3388.

Thijssen VL, Paulis YW, Nowak-Sliwinska P, Deumelandt KL, Hosaka K, Soetekouw PM, Cimpean AM, Raica M, Pauwels P, van den Oord JJ, Tjan-Heijnen VC, Hendrix MJ, Heldin CH, Cao Y, Griffioen AW. Targeting PDGF-mediated recruitment of pericytes blocks vascular mimicry and tumor growth. J Pathol. 2018, 246(4):447-458. 

Heeren AM, van Dijk I, Berry DRAI, Khelil M, Ferns D, Kole J, Musters RJP,  Thijssen VL, Mom CH, Kenter GG, Bleeker MCG, De Gruijl TD, Jordanova ES. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase Expression Pattern in the Tumor Microenvironment predicts Clinical Outcome in Early Stage Cervical Cancer. Frontiers Immunol, 2018, 11;9:1598

Collignon J, Dang T, Delacour D, Jacob R, Leffler H, Ludger J, Rabinovich GA, Rousset JP,  Thijssen VL, Viguier M. A tribute to Francoise Poirier (1954 - 2018). Glycobiology. 2018. 28(6):  348-348. 

Aanhane E, Schulkens IA, Heusschen R, Castricum KC, Leffler H, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. Different angioregulatory activity of monovalent galectin-9 isoforms. Angiogenesis. 2018. 21(3):545-555. 

Hamming LC, Slotman BJ, Verheul HMW,  Thijssen VL. The clinical application of angiostatic therapy in combination with radiotherapy: past, present, future. Angiogenesis. 2017. 20(2):217-232. 

Kleibeuker EA, Fokas E, Allen PD, Kersemans V, Griffioen AW, Beech J, Im JH, Smart SC, Castricum KC, van den Berg J, Schulkens IA, Hill SA, Harris AL, Slotman BJ, Verheul HM, Muschel RJ,  Thijssen VL. Low dose angiostatic treatment counteracts radiotherapy-induced tumor perfusion and enhances the anti-tumor effect. Oncotarget. 2016. 7(47):76613-76627. 

Veluchamy J, Spanholtz J, Tordoir M,  Thijssen VL, Verheul HMW, de Gruijl TD, van der Vliet HJ. Combination of NK cells and cetuximab to enhance anti-tumor responses in metastatic colorectal cancer. PLoS ONE. 2016. 11(6):e0157830. 

Huijbers EJ, van Beijnum JR,  Thijssen VL*, Sabrkhany S, Nowak-Sliwinska P, Griffioen AW. Role of the tumor stroma in resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. Drug Resist Updat. 2016. 25:26-37. 

van Beijnum JR,  Thijssen VL, Läppchen T, Wong TJ, Verel I, Engbersen M, Schulkens IA, Rossin R, Grüll H, Griffioen AW, Nowak-Sliwinska P. A key role for galectin-1 in sprouting angiogenesis revealed by novel rationally designed antibodies. Int J Cancer. 2016. 139(4):824-35.  

Kleibeuker EA, Ten Hooven M, Verheul HM, Slotman BJ,  Thijssen VL. Combining radiotherapy with sunitinib; Lessons (to be) learned. Angiogenesis. 2015. 18(4):385-95. 

Punt S,  Thijssen VL, Vrolijk J, de Kroon CD, Gorter A, Jordanova ES. Galectin-1, -3 and -9 expression and clinical significance in squamous cervical cancer. PLoS ONE. 2015. 10(6):e0129119 

Punt S, Houwing-Duistermaat JJ, Schulkens IA,  Thijssen VL, Osse EM, de Kroon CD, Griffioen AW, Fleuren G-J, GorterA, Jordanova ES. Correlations between immune response and vascularization qRT-PCR gene expression clusters in squamous cervical cancer. Molecular Cancer. 2015. 14(1):71. 

Van Wijk X, Laurence R,  Thijssen VL, Van den Broek S, Troost R, Van Scherpenzeel M, Naidu N, Oosterhof A, Griffioen AW, Lefeber DJ, Van Delft FL and Van Kuppevelt A. A common sugar-nucleotide mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc. FASEB J. 2015. 29(7):2993-3002. 

Thijssen VL, Heusschen R, Caers J, Griffioen AW. Galectin expression in cancer diagnosis and prognosis: A systematic review. BBA Rev Cancer. 2015.1855(2):235-247. 

 van Beijnum JR, Nowak-Sliwinska P, Huijbers EJM,  Thijssen VL*, Griffioen AW. The great escape; the hallmarks of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. Pharmacol Rev. 2015. 67(2):441-61. 

Kleibeuker EA, ten Hooven MA, Castricum KC, Honeywell R, Griffioen AW, Verheul HM, Slotman BJ , Thijssen VL. Optimal treatment scheduling of ionizing radiation and sunitinib improves the antitumor activity and allows dose reduction. Cancer Med. 2015. 4(7):1003-15. 

Schulkens IA, Heusschen R, van den Boogaart V, Kleibeuker EA, Castricum KC, van Suylen R-J, Dingemans A-MC, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. Galectin expression profiling identifies galectin-1 and galectin-9∆5 as prognostic factors in stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer. PLoS ONE. 2014. 9(9):e107988. 

Griffioen AW, Thijssen VL. Galectins in tumor angiogenesis. Ann Transl Med. 2014;2(9):90. 

Schulkens IA, Castricum KC, Weijers EM, Koolwijk P, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. The expression, regulation and function of human metallothioneins in endothelial cells. J Vasc Res. 2014. 51(3):231-8. 

Thijssen VL, Griffioen AW. Galectin-1 and galectin-9 in angiogenesis; A sweet couple. Glycobiol. 2014. 24(10):915-920.

Bajou K, Herkenne S,  Thijssen VL, D'Amico S, Nguyen N-Q-N, Bouché A, Tabruyn S, Srahna M, Carabin J-Y, Nivelles O, Paques C, Cornelissen I, Lion M, Noel A, Gils A, Vinckier S, Declerck PJ, Griffioen AW, Dewerchin M, Martial JA, Carmeliet P, Struman I. PAI-1 mediates antiangiogenic and fibrinolytic actions of prolactin/growth hormone 16-14K fragments. Nat Med. 2014. 20(7):741-7. 

Heusschen H, Schulkens IA, van Beijnum JR, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. Endothelial LGALS9 splice variant expression in endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis. BBA Mol Bas Dis. 2014. 1842(2):284-92.  

van Wijk XM,  Thijssen VL*, Lawrence R, van den Broek SA, Dona M, Naidu N, Oosterhof A, van de Westerlo EM, Kusters LJ, Khaled Y, Jokela TA, Nowak-Sliwinska P, Kremer H, Stringer SE, Griffioen AW, van Wijk E, van Delft FL, van Kuppevelt TH. Interfering with UDP-GlcNAc metabolism and heparan sulfate expression using a sugar analog reduces angiogenesis. ACS Chem Biol. 2013. 8(10):2331-8 

Thijssen VL, Rabinovich GA, Griffioen AW. Vascular galectins: regulators of tumor progression and targets for cancer therapy. Cytokine Growth F R, 2013. 24(6):547-58.  

Barrientos G, Freitag N, Tirado-González I, Unverdorben L, Jeschke U,  Thijssen VL, Blois SM. Involvement of galectin-1 in reproduction: past, present and future. Hum Reprod Update, 2014, 20(2):175-93 

Freitag N, Tirado-González I, Barrientos G, Herse F,  Thijssen VL, Weedon-Fekjær SM, Schulz H, Wallukat G, Klapp BF, Nevers T, Sharma S, Staff AC, Dechend R, Blois SM. Interfering with gal-1-mediated angiogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PNAS, 2013, 110(28):11451-6. 

Tugues S, Honjo S, König C, Padhan N, Kroon J, Gualandi L, Li X, Barkefors I,  Thijssen VL, Griffioen AW, Lena Claesson-Welsh L. Tetraspanin CD63 promotes VEGF receptor-2 / β1 integrin complex formation, thereby regulating activation and downstream signaling in endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem, 2013, 288(26):19060-71. 

Heusschen R, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. Galectin-9 in tumor biology: A jack of multiple trades. BBA Reviews Cancer, 2013. 1836(1):177-85. 

Lindenberg JJ, Lougheed SM, van de Ven R, Zomer A, Santegoets SJAM, Griffioen AW, Erik Hooijberg E, van den Eertwegh AJM,  Thijssen VL, Scheper RJ, Oosterhoff D, de Gruijl1 TD. Functional characterization and STAT3 dependence of a dendritic cell-derived CD14+ population arising upon IL-10-exposed maturation. OncoImmunol, 2013. 2(4): e23837. 

Heusschen R, Freitag N, Tirado-González I, Barrientos G, Moschansky P, Muñoz-Fernández R, Leno-Durán E, Klapp BF,  Thijssen VL*, Blois SM. Profiling Lgals9 Splice Variant Expression at the Fetal-Maternal Interface: Implications in Normal and Pathological Pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2013. 88(1):22. 

Margadant C, van den Bout I, van Boxtel AL,  Thijssen VL, Sonnenberg A. Epigenetic regulation of galectin-3 expression by β1 integrins promotes cell adhesion and migration. J Biol Chem. 2012. 287(53):44684-93. 

Barrientos G, Tirado-González I, Freitag N, Kobelt P, Moschansky P, Klapp BF,  Thijssen VL, Blois SM. CXCR4+ Dendritic cells promote angiogenesis during embryo implantation in mice. Angiogenesis. 2013. 16(2):417-27. 

Tirado-González I, Barrientos G, Freitag N, Otto T,  Thijssen VL, Moschansky P, von Kwiatkowsk P, Klapp BF, Winterhager E, Bauersachs S, Blois S. Uterine NK cells are critical in shaping DC immunogenic functions compatible with pregnancy progression. PlosONE. 2012. 7(10):e46755. 

Kleibeuker EA, Griffioen AW, Verheul HM, Slotman BJ,  Thijssen VL, Combining angiogenesis inhibition and radiotherapy: A double-edged sword. Drug Resist Updates. 2012. 15(3):173-82. 

Laeremans H, Hackeng TM, van Zandvoort MA,  Thijssen VL, Janssen BJ, Ottenheijm HC, Smits JF, Blankesteijn WM. Blocking of Frizzled signaling with a homologous peptide fragment of Wnt3a/Wnt5a reduces infarct expansion and prevents the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2011. 124(15):1626-35. 

Gianella A, Jarzyna PA, Mani V, Ramachandran S, Calcagno C, Tang J,  Thijssen VL, Griffioen, AW, Storm G, Fayad ZA, Mulder WJ. A multifunctional nanoemulsion platform for imaging guided therapy evaluated in experimental cancer. ACS Nano. 2011. 5(6):4422-33.  

Stancic M, van Horssen J,  Thijssen VL, Gabius H-J, Bsibsi M, van der Valk P, Hoekstra D, Baron W. Increased expression of distinct galectins in multiple sclerosis lesions. Neuropath Appl Neuro. 2011. 37(6):654-71.  

Salomonsson E,  Thijssen VL, Griffioen AW, Nillson UJ, Leffler H. The anti-angiogenic peptide anginex greatly enhances galectin-1 binding affinity for glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 2011. 286(16):13801-4. 

Bijnsdorp IV, Capriotti F, Kruyt FA, Losekoot N, Fukushima M, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL, Peters GJ. Thymidine phosphorylase in cancer cells stimulates human endothelial cell migration and invasion by the secretion of angiogenic factors. Br J Cancer. 2011. 104(7):1185-92. 

Thijssen VL, Barkan B, Shoji H, Aries IM, Mathieu V, Deltour L, Hackeng TM, Kiss R, Kloog Y, Poirier Y, Griffioen AW. Tumor cells secrete galectin-1 to enhance endothelial cell activity. Cancer Res. 2010;70(15):6216-24.

Dingemans A-MC, Van den Boogaart V, Vosse BA, Van Suylen R-J, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. Integrin expression profiling identifies integrin alpha5 and beta1 as prognostic factors in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:152.

Heusschen R, van Gink M, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL. microRNAs in the tumor endothelium; novel controls on the angioregulatory switchboard. BBA Reviews Cancer. 2010;1805(1):87-96.

van Rooij E, Fielitz J, Sutherland LB,  Thijssen VL, Crijns HJ, Dimaio MJ, Shelton J, De Windt LJ, Hill JA, Olson EN. Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 and Class II Histone Deacetylases Control a Gender-Specific Pathway of Cardioprotection Mediated by the Estrogen Receptor. Circ Res. 2010 Jan 8;106(1):155-65

Baldewijns MM, Roskams T, Ballet V, Van den Eynden GG, Van Laere SJ, Van der Auwera I, Lerut E, De Bruïne AP,  Thijssen VL, Vermeulen PB, Van Poppel H. Low frequency of lymph node metastasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is related to low lymphangiogenic activity. BJU International. 2009; 103(12):1626-31. 

Eude-Le Parco I, Gendronneau G, N'Guyen T, Delacour D,  Thijssen VL, Edelmann W, Peuchmaur M, Poirier F. Genetic assessment of the importance of galectin-3 in cancer initiation, progression and dissemination in mice. Glycobiology. 2009;19(1):68-75.

 Thijssen VL, Hulsmans S, Griffioen AW.  The galectin profile of the endothelium: altered expression and localization in activated and tumor endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2008;172(2):545-53. 

Thijssen VL, van Beijnum JR, Mayo KH, Griffioen AW.  Identification of novel drug targets for angiostatic cancer therapy; it takes two to tango. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13(35):3576-83. 

Thijssen VL, Poirier F, Baum LG, Griffioen AW.  Galectins in the tumor endothelium: opportunities for combined cancer therapy. Blood. 2007;110(8):2819-27. 

Baldewijns MM,  Thijssen VL, Van den Eynden GG, Van Laere SJ, Bluekens AM, Roskams T, van Poppel H, De Bruïne AP, Griffioen AW, Vermeulen PB.  High-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma has a higher angiogenic activity than low-grade renal cell carcinoma based on histomorphological quantification and qRT-PCR mRNA expression profile. Br J Cancer. 2007;96(12):1888-95. 

Brandwijk RJ, Griffioen AW,  Thijssen VL.  Targeted gene-delivery strategies for angiostatic cancer treatment. Trends Mol Med. 2007;13(5):200-9. 

Brandwijk RJ, Mulder WJ, Nicolay K, Mayo KH,  Thijssen VL, Griffioen AW.  Anginex-conjugated liposomes for targeting of angiogenic endothelial cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2007;18(3):785-90. 

Thijssen VL, Postel R, Brandwijk RJ, Dings RP, Nesmelova I, Satijn S, Verhofstad N, Nakabeppu Y, Baum LG, Bakkers J, Mayo KH, Poirier F, Griffioen AW. Galectin-1 is essential in tumor angiogenesis and is a target for antiangiogenesis therapy. PNAS. 2006;103(43):15975-80. 

Brandwijk RJ, Dings RP, van der Linden E, Mayo KH,  Thijssen VL, Griffioen AW.  Anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity of recombinant anginex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349(3):1073-8. 

Punyadeera C,  Thijssen VL*, Tchaikovski S, Kamps R, Delvoux B, Dunselman GA, de Goeij AF, Griffioen AW, Groothuis PG.  Expression and regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors during menstruation and post-menstrual repair of human endometrium. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006;12(6):367-75. 

Dirkx AE, oude Egbrink MG, Castermans K, van der Schaft DW,  Thijssen VL, Dings RP, Kwee L, Mayo KH, Wagstaff J, Bouma-ter Steege JC, Griffioen AW. Anti-angiogenesis therapy can overcome endothelial cell anergy and promote leukocyte-endothelium interactions and infiltration in tumors. FASEB J. 2006;20(6):621-30. 

Brandwijk RJ, Nesmelova I, Dings RP, Mayo KH,  Thijssen VL, Griffioen AW.  Cloning an artificial gene encoding angiostatic anginex: From designed peptide to functional recombinant protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333(4):1261-8. 

Thijssen VL, Borgers M, Lenders MH, Ramaekers FC, Suzuki G, Palka B, Fallavollita JA, Thomas SA, Canty JM Jr.  Temporal and spatial variations in structural protein expression during the progression from stunned to hibernating myocardium. Circulation. 2004;110(21):3313-21. 

Bouma-ter Steege JC, Baeten CI,  Thijssen VL, Satijn SA, Verhoeven IC, Hillen  HF, Wagstaff J, Griffioen AW.  Angiogenic profile of breast carcinoma determines leukocyte infiltration. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(21):7171-8. 

Thijssen VL, Brandwijk RJ, Dings RP, Griffioen AW.  Angiogenesis gene expression profiling in xenograft models to study cellular interactions. Exp Cell Res. 2004;299(2):286-93. 

Thijssen VL, Ausma J, Gorza L, van der Velden HM, Allessie MA, Van Gelder IC, Borgers M, van Eys GJ.  Troponin I isoform expression in human and experimental atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2004;110(7):770-5. 

Nap AW, Griffioen AW, Dunselman GA, Bouma-Ter Steege JC,  Thijssen VL, Evers JL, Groothuis PG.  Antiangiogenesis therapy for endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(3):1089-95. 

Babiker FA, De Windt LJ, van Eickels M,  Thijssen V, Bronsaer RJ, Grohé C, van Bilsen M, Doevendans PA.  17beta-estradiol antagonizes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by autocrine/paracrine stimulation of a guanylyl cyclase A receptor-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase pathway. Circulation. 2004;109(2):269-76. 

Rensen SS,  Thijssen VL, De Vries CJ, Doevendans PA, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Van Eys GJ.  Expression of the smoothelin gene is mediated by alternative promoters. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;55(4):850-63. 

Thijssen VL, van der Velden HM, van Ankeren EP, Ausma J, Allessie MA, Borgers M, van Eys GJ, Jongsma HJ.  Analysis of altered gene expression during sustained atrial fibrillation in the goat. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;54(2):427-37. 

Thijssen VL, Ausma J, Borgers M.  Structural remodelling during chronic atrial fibrillation: act of programmed cell survival. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;52(1):14-24.  

Thijssen VL, Ausma J, Liu GS, Allessie MA, van Eys GJ, Borgers M. Structural changes of atrial myocardium during chronic atrial fibrillation. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2000; 9(1):17-28.